Fedor Konyukhov
enru
19.02.2014

Tropical Cyclones

In our last telephone conversation with Fedor he mentioned the risk of getting caught in one of the cyclones that are predominant in the Oceania between November and April.

Details

In our last telephone conversation with Fedor he mentioned the risk of getting caught in one of the cyclones that are predominant in the Oceania between November and April.

A Pacific Ocean cyclone is analogue with a hurricane in the Atlantic Ocean. If the wind is up to 65 knots it is a tropical storm, but when the wind rises beyond 65 knots (100 km/hrs.) it turns into a cyclone. Such weather conditions are present in every ocean of our planet, they just carry different names: typhoons in the North Pacific Ocean; hurricanes in the Atlantic; and cyclones in the South Pacific and Indian oceans.

In the South Pacific the cyclones pose a real risk in the area from the Tuamotus archipelago to the east coast of Australia. The second half of Fedor’s transpacific rowing will be in the tropical cyclone zone.

Given the devastating force of cyclones to the population of the Oceania and the coast of Australia the search and rescue forces of these countries monitor closely for low pressure zones which are the birth place of tropical storms. One of the websites that provides the most recent data on tropical storms in the French Polynesia is French CyclonExtreme. According to this website, there was already one cyclone that passed through the area of Fedor’s route. This cyclone was christened as IAN and it battered the South Pacific archipelago with gusts up to 287 kilometers (178 miles) per hour. There were four more tropical storms in the area: June, Dylan, Edna, and Fletcher. The storm Dylan turned into a cyclone and hit the North Queensland coast of Australia.  The other three storms had passed in the open ocean from north to south.  Based on the weather prognosis for 2013-2014, there will be 4-6 more tropical storms and cyclones in the area.

Cyclones gain their strength in the equatorial latitudes where the temperature of the sea-surface is 26.5° or higher. Once a cyclone reaches its full force it can exist in colder latitudes moving chaotically. To accurately predict the trajectory of a cyclone is very difficult. The black lines in the image below show the erratic paths of every cyclone that had plummeted the Australian coasts for the last few decades.      

 

A cyclone is not affected by the ocean breeze and trade winds. The eye wall of a cyclone can reach 15 kilometers in height, connecting the surface of the warm ocean with the stratosphere.  It’s vertical form is eventually destroyed after entering land or cold water latitudes where it loses its strength without the warmth of the sea-surface.  If a cyclone is 2-3 latitudinal degrees in width than it’s in the small range; 3-6 degrees in width makes it a mid-range; and at 6-8 degrees width it become a large scale cyclone. The average speed of Fedor’s boat is 2-3 knots which is not fast enough to outrun a cyclone. We at headquarters need to keep Fedor informed on the location and trajectory of cyclones in his path.  In the case of an imminent tropical storm or cyclone, Fedor would use a sea anchor which acts as a brake in stormy weather and wait for cyclone to pass. Once a sea anchor is released the boat can proceed only due to the current which is about one knot in the tropical storm zone. 

Australian Bureau of Meteorology reports that as of February 19th, 2014, there are currently no tropical cyclones.

Project Manager Oscar Konyukhov

Translated by Tatiana Koreski

 



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18.02.2014

Day 58

The conditions in the ocean are changing every day as I move closer and closer to French Polynesia. Today I saw birds and yesterday dolphins came close to my boat, but didn’t stick around for too long. I guess my rowing is too slow and they quickly got bored.

Details

"The conditions in the ocean are changing every day as I move closer and closer to French Polynesia. Today I saw birds and yesterday dolphins came close to my boat, but didn’t stick around for too long. I guess my rowing is too slow and they quickly got bored. Last night the winds turned sharply north. Not just north-east, but straight from the north. Immediately the boat was pushed south. I was caught off guard and clearly wasn’t ready for such a turn of events. Luckily, the north wind lasted only a couple of hours, but it was enough of a wakeup call for me to realize that I need to climb more north towards the equator. That way I will have enough latitude in case the wind decides to turn north on me. In the next few days I’ll try to cross the 10th degree of the Southern Latitude. I will stay at the 9° and 10° of South Latitude as I row my way into the Oceania. I still have 500 miles until the islands and I must keep my course westward. Today Tourgoyak and I will be crossing the 130°of the Western Longitude which means we are officially entering the waters of French Polynesia. I’ve already switched the weather maps and now will be following the “Oceania” weather data. The half-way point is at 140° of Western Longitude: 10 degrees or 600 more miles of rowing. It will be great to reach the way point by the beginning of Great Lent which falls on March 3rd this year.

I am praying to Saint Nicholas to protect me on the ocean and help me to avoid tropical cyclones. The most dangerous thing for me and my ocean row boat would be meeting a tropical cyclone.  There is a lot of danger to watch for as you ocean row alone. Amongst such dangers is the risk of being thrown out onto the reefs or atolls; getting caught under a ship’s propeller at night when the vessel is on autopilot; sustaining a serious injury on your own boat, etc. These risks are great and could be deadly, but I can risk-manage them by being in control of my boat and myself and staying alert of what’s happening around me. But how does one prevent an encounter with a tropical storm or cyclone? It’s beyond human ability when your means of transportation is an ocean row boat. The storm season in the Oceania lasts from November to April and getting caught in one of them is the number one risk for me. So far, after 58 days on the Pacific Ocean I’m safe and sound. God’s been watching over me and my boat, and I pray that He will continue to do so. 

After 58 days of 24/7 swinging on the waves it’s hard to picture that there is another reality somewhere out there. If it wasn’t for my satellite phone, life would be completely eremitic. I’m with you. Fedor".

Tropical Cyclone Statistics of 2013-2014 is here.

The map of the Tourgoyak's course: http://yb.tl/konyukhov2

The detailed map of the course: www.oceanrowing.com/Konyukhov/Pacific2013/dist_map.htm

Translated by Tatiana Koreski



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16.02.2014

Day56

At dawn the AIS system detected a fishing boat 5 miles in the distance. I didn’t radio them because my experience has shown that as soon as fishing men hear that there is an ocean row boat, more often than not, they want to come closer to take a look at my boat.

Details

“At dawn the AIS system detected a fishing boat 5 miles in the distance. I didn’t radio them because my experience has shown that as soon as fishing men hear that there is an ocean row boat, more often than not, they want to come closer to take a look at my boat. Such encounters are stressful and not necessary.

The weather is fantastic. The wind is 10-15 knots, the waves are unswerving, with no crests. Last night went well without any rain or squall episodes. The circumstances are ideal for an ocean rowing. I get a great amount of satisfaction from rowing and just being on the ocean. While on land, it’s exactly what I hope for while preparing for an ocean expedition. Such days like today get ingrained in my memory most vividly urging me to return to the oceans again and again. I’m in a great mood right now. It’s time for breakfast. I think my body has lost about five kilos. I have to be careful not to lose too much of my weight. There is really not much to lose to begin with, and I still have 5000 miles to row. I’ve got to keep better care of my body.

Still no fish, but there are a lot of bluebottles known as the Portuguese man of war. One of them got tangled in the fishing line and I decided to release the creature. I didn’t wear gloves and got stung all right. The pain is tolerable, but I will definitely wear gloves next time I catch a bluebottle.

Mentally I’m preparing myself for the new section of my route - the passage of islands. It will be difficult and dangerous, but if the easterly wind keeps its course, I have a great chance to pass between the Tuamotus and the Marquesas Islands without a glitch. If the wind turns from the north or the south, I will be in great danger of being pushed towards the islands, and in the worst case scenario, ending up at the rocks. The narrow passage is only 150 miles wide and I have to be precise with my maneuvering between the islands. I’m still hoping to be there by the end of the month, God willing. I’m with you. Fedor.”

The map of the Tourgoyak's course: http://yb.tl/konyukhov2

The detailed map of the course: www.oceanrowing.com/Konyukhov/Pacific2013/dist_map.htm

Translated by Tatiana Koreski



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14.02.2014

Day 54

Last night the wind rose to 20 knots with gusts of 25 knots. The seas rose up to 4 meters. The sky is crystal clear without a single cloud. The ocean continues to push Tourgoyak westward. The boat is facing the ocean well, keeps the course and doesn’t turn sideways.

Details

“Last night the wind rose to 20 knots with gusts of 25 knots. The seas rose up to 4 meters. The sky is crystal clear without a single cloud. The ocean continues to push Tourgoyak westward. The boat is facing the ocean well, keeps the course and doesn’t turn sideways. I’m happy that we installed a centerboard in the bow section of the boat. It helps tremendously to keep the course.  The high waves look particularly spooky at night in the full moon light. Last night I was able to see a green flash at sunset.  The intensely green light lasted only a few seconds. It’s said that seeing a green flash is good luck.

I had to do some maintenance on the rowing seat again. The seat rollers started to make creaking and crunching sounds. I took them off and lathered with some grease to minimize friction. I have four sets of rollers and have already used one of them.  According to my plan, I can use another set by the time I reach my half-way point.  At dawn I switched a chart chip on Raymarine A65 Chart plotter with the maps of “South America; Pacific Ocean” onto “Pacific Ocean; Oceania.” The chart chip contains very detailed maps of the French Polynesia islands and atolls including every yacht club on each island. With transitioning to a new set of maps I mentally moved closer to the islands. Right now, I can only wonder and speculate how the region is going to welcome me. 

Today I received a message from my friend Vladimir Ledenev reminding me that on February 15th, 1986 we stood on the Northern Pole of Relative Inaccessibility. I remember that expedition very well. It was my first expedition to the North Pole. I was a novice in Dmitriy Shparo’s team.  We started on January 29th, 1986 in the midst of the polar night. The temperature would reach negative 50° C.  Our route was from the polar research station “NP-26” through the Pole of Inaccessibility to the polar station “NP-27”, which we reached on March 7th, 1986. We skied on drifting ice for thirty eight days in absolute darkness. It was the most difficulty polar expedition of my life.

I have less than 900 miles until my next way point. With God’s help I’ll see land by the end of the month. I’m with you. Fedor. ”

The map of the Tourgoyak's course: http://yb.tl/konyukhov2

The detailed map of the course: www.oceanrowing.com/Konyukhov/Pacific2013/dist_map.htm

Translated by Tatiana Koreski



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12.02.2014

1000 miles until the French Polynesia

Fedor reports via satphone: “Tourgoyak and I have left 70 more miles behind during last 24 hours, having only slightly less than 1000 miles until the islands of the French Polynesia. This is great news: once I reach Fatu Hiva (the Marquesas Islands), it would mean that I’m close to being half way done with the transpacific crossing. The easterly wind is stable, 15 knots. The seas are crestless, 2-2.5 in height. The boat is going really fast. I’m always keeping the harness on. In case of falling overboard it would be nearly impossible to catch a light carbon row boat that is carried by the current and the trade winds

Details

Fedor reports via satphone: “Tourgoyak and I have left 70 more miles behind during last 24 hours, having only slightly less than 1000 miles until the islands of the French Polynesia. This is great news: once I reach Fatu Hiva (the Marquesas Islands), it would mean that I’m close to being half way done with the transpacific crossing. The easterly wind is stable, 15 knots. The seas are crestless, 2-2.5 in height. The boat is going really fast. I’m always keeping the harness on. In case of falling overboard it would be nearly impossible to catch a light carbon row boat that is carried by the current and the trade winds. Even for an experience swimmer such challenge would be very difficult. I don’t want to temp my fate and so I keep the harness on even when asleep, because there are times when I need to jump out onto the deck in just a few seconds and there is no time to lose fiddling with the harness. Tonight there is a full moon. The nights are calm; the ocean is bulged and breathes deeply. There is no need for a flashlight for the moonlight shines upon the deck brightly. I’ll be approaching the islands under the old moon which means the ocean will be less calm and more chaotic.

This morning I caught a small calamari. I had a fishing line dragging overboard and luckily was able to snatch a fresh breakfast. Scalding calamari with some boiling water was sufficient, and it turned out be a very welcoming addition to my regular menu. I have read and reread dozens of times “The Kon-Tiki Expedition: By Raft Across the South Seas” by Thor Heyerdahl. How much the ocean has changed since 1947! In his book Heyerdahl writes that he and his crew would catch all sorts of fish: tuna, mahi-mahi, bonitos, and collect large amounts of flying fish which they would fry on a frying pan for breakfast each morning. My experience tells a different story: between 80° to 120° of the Western Longitude the Pacific Ocean is absolutely void of any living edible thing that I can get my hands on. Giving the fact that I spend 16 hours a day on deck, only 30 cm from the surface of the ocean, this emptiness is very peculiar and puzzling to me. I pay close attention to my surroundings, but there is nothing to see as far as the ocean life goes. The contrast between my observations and the ones made by Heyerdahl is striking.

Today I talked on the phone to one of my friends who reminded me that it’s been five years since he, myself and six more people crossed the Pacific Ocean with a course of New-Zeeland - Cape Horn - Falkland Islands – Antigua - England on sail boat “Alye Parusa”. Once again, I’m amazed at how fast time flies. That was my fifth sailing around Cape Horn, but the first one with a crew. We had a goal to see Cape Horn during the day and arranged our watch schedule accordingly.

I’m in a great mood looking forward to rowing the remaining 1000 miles to Fatu Hiva. It’s as if I can see a light at the end of a tunnel. In the first month, when I would look at the map between the South America and Australia, the ocean looked so vast, the computer map couldn’t even fit full map on screen. Now, however, I see the land on the map and even though I am not planning to stop on any of the islands the picture of me moving closer to them is very encouraging. I miss the smell of land, the sight of birds flying in the sky. I am with you. Fedor.”

The map of the Tourgoyak's course: http://yb.tl/konyukhov2

The detailed map of the course: www.oceanrowing.com/Konyukhov/Pacific2013/dist_map.htm

Translated by Tatiana Koreski



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10.02.2014

Day 50

It’s been 50 days since my start from Chile on December 22nd, 2013. Back on land people celebrated Christmas, New Year, and now have welcomed the Winter Olympic Games in Sochi, but there haven’t been too many changes for me out here on the ocean. The fifty days of constant tipping and rolling of the boat and my rowing have conditioned me to be under a constant stress.

Details

Fedor via the Iridium satphone: “It’s been 50 days since my start from Chile on December 22nd, 2013. Back on land people celebrated Christmas, New Year, and now have welcomed the Winter Olympic Games in Sochi, but there haven’t been too many changes for me out here on the ocean. The fifty days of constant tipping and rolling of the boat and my rowing have conditioned me to be under a constant stress. I can’t relax even when I lay down in the aft cabin to catch that coveted one hour of sleep in between my shifts. The repetitive motion of rowing has begun manifesting in aches and pains of my hands. While I’m on oars, the pain is not so deep, but as soon as I stop rowing to get some rest, the pain is more intense. It’s a nagging pain, like someone is twisting my arms. This just shows that the health of an ocean rower is an important aspect of the entire expedition. I’m hoping that my body can take and cope with this beating called ocean rowing.

It’s time to start paying ever so close attention to the weather reports, particularly about the wind direction. Right now, I’m in the latitude of my next way point, which is Fatu Hiva of the Marquesas Islands. I would like to have a good angle to maneuver pass the island. If I get too far north or south, my passing of the island will be more difficult. As of today, I have rowed 3100 nautical miles since the start, and according to my onboard computer, I have 6000 more miles to go to reach Brisbane. A one third of the way in 50 days is a very good result. Today I crossed 120° of the Western Longitude, which means I am no longer in the waters under the search and rescue authorities of Chile and Peru. Tourgoyak and I had entered into the region of the French Polynesia designated zone of responsibility for search and rescue.”

The map of the Tourgoyak@@apos@@s course: http://yb.tl/konyukhov2

The detailed map of the course: www.oceanrowing.com/Konyukhov/Pacific2013/dist_map.htm

Translated by Tatiana Koreski



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08.02.2014

Day 48. The 3,000 mile mark

Fedor on the satphone: "Last night the weather surprised me with non-stop rain. It was the first rainstorm since the start. The deck was washed clean by the rainwater. The solar panels were particularly in need of a rain shower for they had accumulated a thin layer of sea salt. By morning the rain had stopped. The low hanging clouds are drifting across the sky. According to my calculations, as of today, Tourgoyak and I have covered 3,000 nautical miles. That's one third of the distance. After almost 50 days of being on the ocean, I'm increasingly missing the land. Last night I had a dream that I was walking on a green field

Details

Fedor on the satphone: "Last night the weather surprised me with non-stop rain. It was the first rainstorm since the start. The deck was washed clean by the rainwater. The solar panels were particularly in need of a rain shower for they had accumulated a thin layer of sea salt. By morning the rain had stopped. The low hanging clouds are drifting across the sky. According to my calculations, as of today, Tourgoyak and I have covered 3,000 nautical miles. That's one third of the distance. After almost 50 days of being on the ocean, I'm increasingly missing the land. Last night I had a dream that I was walking on a green field. It felt so great, even though it was a dream, to walk in full height on firm ground. Despite the rude awakening by my alarm, I lingered in my sleep trying to hold on to this dream. I do miss walking, that's for sure. Here, on the three meter long deck I can't walk too far, plus standing up is not particularly safe. I mostly get around on my knees, crawling between the cabin and the deck.

Three thousand miles on the ocean is a respectable accomplishment for any sailboat, but for an ocean row boat it is definitely pushing the limits. The ocean is the perfect place to reflect on one's life. I find myself thinking a lot about my past expeditions: Everest, South Pole, circumnavigations, and of course, mostly about my friends and family. Since there is nothing but water to observe and contemplate, I turn to my own thoughts, feelings and memories analyzing them inside and out. After 62 years on this planet, there is a lot to remember and think about.

I'm at the 10th degree of the Southern Latitude. It's about 600 miles south of the equator. The tropics are in their full beauty. The sunsets here are something to behold. I don't miss a single sunset. It's my ritual: about ten minutes before the sun sets I stop rowing to take it all in, and even when the sun has completely disappeared into the horizon, I sit in complete silence for another ten minutes. It's a great way to finish my day, give thanks to our Creator, and prepare emotionally for the night ahead.

An ocean rower depends utterly on the Ocean with all its moods, changes and unpredictability. While on a sail boat you can change the course 180 degrees, proceed even in the headwinds and have general control, on a row boat, however, you either propel your boat by rowing or let the ocean carry you. It's a complete surrender; a perfect test on humility.

I will maintain a westward course at 10° of the southern latitude as I approach Fatu Hiva, weather permitting.”

The map of the Tourgoyak's course: http://yb.tl/konyukhov2

The detailed map of the course: www.oceanrowing.com/Konyukhov/Pacific2013/dist_map.htm

Translated by Tatiana Koreski



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06.02.2014

Day 46

Day 46 on the ocean brings memories of my other ocean rowing. Back in 2002 it took me 46 days to row across the Atlantic Ocean from La Gomera to Barbados. The 46 days is the longest I've been on a row boat.

Details

South Pacific Ocean. Rowing boat “Tourgoyak” coordinates: 11°11 S and 115°25 W.

Fedor reports via satellite phone: "Day 46 on the ocean brings memories of my other ocean rowing. Back in 2002 it took me 46 days to row across the Atlantic Ocean from La Gomera to Barbados. The 46 days is the longest I've been on a row boat. (To read about Fedor's transatlantic crossing on "URALAZ" row boat click here).

During my preparations for the transpacific crossing I used the Atlantic results as a baseline. So, it took me 46 days to row 3000 nautical miles. To be on the safe side I round up the number of days to 50. The route I've chosen to cross the Pacific comes close to 9000 nautical miles, which is three times longer than my route in the Atlantic. Based on that, I multiplied 50 days by 3, got 150 and added 30 more days for bad weather with storms, headwinds, calms and the like. These were my calculations in order to estimate how much food, propane gas canisters, and other equipment I'll need to pack to last me on this expedition. Only time will tell if my calculations were correct. After 46 days in the Atlantic I was able to stand on ‘terra firma’. This time, 46 days puts me right in the middle of the Pacific Ocean. I have more than one thousand miles before the nearest land (the Marquesas Islands), and about 6000 miles before the prospective finish line.

Last night was uneventful and went well. This morning though my AIS turned on to warn me of an upcoming vessel. It turned out to be a Japanese fishing trawler. They passed me within a two mile distance, at a speed of 4 knots. My peaceful morning, therefore, was interrupted by this unexpected encounter, forcing me to spend the sunrise working frantically on the oars, rather than doing my usual morning prayer followed by a cup of coffee. However, all is well. The seas have subsided to a comfortable 2 meters, and the tailwind is a subtle 15 knots."   

The map of the Tourgoyak's course: http://yb.tl/konyukhov2

The detailed map of the course: www.oceanrowing.com/Konyukhov/Pacific2013/dist_map.htm

Translated by Tatiana Koreski

 



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06.02.2014

Tracking Tourgoyak from Space

Starting on February 1, 2014 the Tourgoyak boat is being followed by the Russian astronauts at the International Space Station (ISS). They will rely on the coordinates of the boat received from the Yellow Brick beacon. The goal of this tracking is to provide images of the boat, weather permitting, and also to enhance visual weather report charts.

Details

Starting on February 1, 2014 the Tourgoyak boat is being followed by the Russian astronauts at the International Space Station (ISS). They will rely on the coordinates of the boat received from the Yellow Brick beacon. The goal of this tracking is to provide images of the boat, weather permitting, and also to enhance visual weather report charts. The Russian segment of the Expedition 37/38 (ISS 37/38) crew consists of Oleg Kotov, Sergey Ryazanskiy and Mikhail Tyurin. Since February 1st, the astronauts have been trying to take images of Tourgoyak in the Pacific Ocean, but due to the high seas and foaming white crests it is difficult to locate a 9 meter boat with a white hull. Today we were informed by Vladimir Solovyov, the first deputy general designer of the Russian division of ISS, that the Russian astronauts have taken their first images of the area. However, due to the cloud cover and white crests of the waves it was not possible to identify the boat. “So far the boat can’t be seen, but we will continue to send the coordinates to the pilots,” – Vladimir Solovyov reports.

The satellite images are received by the Russian division of the ISS Mission Control Center.  The information is then sent to the Russian “Orthodox Pacific Expedition” Headquarters, (http://galakti.com/about.html) who work with Moscow State University of Geodesy and Cartography (MIGAik).

Written by Pavel Alexandrov, Manager of Orthodox Pacific Expedition

Translated by Tatiana Koreski



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05.02.2014

Day 45

My situation in the Pacific Ocean is intense. It’s exhausting to keep the boat turned into the wave, especially when the gigantic waves are trying to turn the boat sideways. They look like mountains raising high and then dizzyingly fast run under the boat. The wind is a non-wavering 20 knots, from the east. Hopefully, as the weather report forecasts, the wind should slow down to 15 knots to give me some relief.

Details

“My situation in the Pacific Ocean is intense. It’s exhausting to keep the boat turned into the wave, especially when the gigantic waves are trying to turn the boat sideways. They look like mountains raising high and then dizzyingly fast run under the boat. The wind is a non-wavering 20 knots, from the east. Hopefully, as the weather report forecasts, the wind should slow down to 15 knots to give me some relief.  Yesterday the day was cloudy, not a glimpse of the sun. As soon as the main accumulators dropped to 80% voltage capacity, I switched to the reserve ones. But the night turned out to be fairly calm and clear, with stars and crescent moon. The morning looks promising; I hope it turns out to be a good day. It’s time to run the watermaker, for at least 15 minutes. Pumping fresh water is always an important event on board. To have a drinkable water supply is crucial to my survival; without it I won’t last long. As far as catching fish to press the juice out of it, I have had only one successful catch, and that was back in the coastal waters of Chile. I’ve got the best fishing gear and extensive experience fishing from my previous ocean adventures. I can’t figure out why I’m having such bad luck with fishing here. It could be that Tourgoyak is too slow for a productive trolling, or simply, there is no fish in this area of the Pacific. Either way, my predictions of catching fish to add to the menu, haven’t been realized.

As far as navigation goes, I have decided to have Fatu Hiva as my main way point. It was exactly to Fatu Hiva that Thor Heyerdahl moved with his wife in 1937. He developed a theory that the ancient Polynesian people had arrived not from the Southeastern Asia, but from South America. He had famously proved his theory by crossing the Pacific from Peru to Polynesia on Kon-Tiki raft. I didn’t choose this island because of the Heyerdahl heritage there, but because it is simply the southernmost island of the Marquesas Islands. My plan is to pass Fatu Hiva at the starboard, and then begin descending to Australia, keeping the course at south-west. The island coordinates are 10°30' S, 138°40' W. The coordinates of Brisbane are 27°30' S, not to mention that it’s in the Eastern Hemisphere of our planet. It’s so far away that I don’t even think about this location right now. However, Fatu Hiva is 1400 nautical miles away, and this distance is much more comprehendible and manageable. With God’s help, I’m hoping to approach the island by mid-March. It will be the first land since I left Concon in December.”

The map of the Tourgoyak's course: http://yb.tl/konyukhov2

The detailed map of the course: www.oceanrowing.com/Konyukhov/Pacific2013/dist_map.htm

Translated by Tatiana Koreski



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